In the process of pest control, biological measures, cultivation measures and physical and mechanical measures should be taken as the main control, but it does not mean that pesticides are not used, especially when these methods are not effective, they must be supplemented with chemical control. For orchards that are in the transition period and have just been organically cultivated, because the ecological balance system in the orchard is still not perfect, it is necessary to carry out chemical control. Organic agriculture can only use some mineral pesticides, plant and microbial pesticides, and it is forbidden to use any chemical synthetic pesticides. It should be specially pointed out that stone sulphur, Bordeaux and oil emulsions are the three major pesticides in organic agriculture, and they are the cheapest and best-performing pesticides. They should be prepared and fully utilized. Practice has shown that under the premise of full prevention Together with the three major pesticides, most of the pests and diseases in the orchard can be controlled. Because the orchard medication methods are generally familiar to the farmers, the following focuses on the precautions for the use of pesticides and pharmaceuticals commonly found in several organic orchards.
1. Preparation and use of stone sulphur mixture
Stone sulphur mixture is the most basic pesticide in orchard. It has good insecticidal and bactericidal effect. It can kill wintering pests and germs during the dormant season. It can also be used to eliminate the first generation of pests during germination. Good bactericidal and insecticidal effect. The stone sulphur mixture is made of 1 kg of quicklime, 2 kg of sulphur powder, and 10 kg of water. When preparing, put the quicklime in the container, use a little warm water to open it, adjust it into lime milk, then slowly add the sulfur powder, then add enough water and boil it with a big fire. When cooking, you need to keep stirring, and use hot water to make up the original amount of water at any time. Cook for about 30 to 60 minutes. If the liquid turns from light yellow to dark brown, you can stop the fire. Filtration with a coarse cloth gave a clear brown stock solution. After cooling, the concentration of Bomei is measured by a specific gravity meter. Generally, a stock solution having a Baume degree of 22 to 24 can be obtained by distilling, and it is necessary to dilute with water when used.
Dilution multiple calculation formula:
Add water dilution factor = (the original wave beauty is a dilution of Baume) / need to dilute Baume
Most of the stone sulphur mixture is applied before germination and after defoliation. Generally, it is 3.5 mils, and the concentration used in the growing season is small, generally 0.2 to 0.3 pm. In the fruit growing season, the stone sulphur mixture can prevent diseases such as hawthorn and other apple mites and apple powdery mildew, apple ring rot and apple rust. When the temperature is lower than 4 Â° C or higher than 32 Â° C, it is not suitable for spraying. The stone sulphur mixture can not be mixed with Bordeaux liquid and oil emulsion, and the corresponding use interval is 20 and 30 days.
2. Preparation and use of Bordeaux mixture
Bordeaux liquid is a protective inorganic copper fungicide . It is the best protective bactericide for organic orchards. It has unique advantages: long residual period, 25 days; strong adhesion, resistance to rain erosion; resistance to pests: Especially in the rainy season, any medicine is irreplaceable: good quality and low price. The commonly used Bordeaux mixture has the same amount (copper sulfate: quicklime = 1:1), multiple (1:2), half (1:0.5), and multi-type (1:3~5). It is 160~240 times. When preparing, dissolve the quicklime according to half the water consumption. After it is completely dissolved, slowly pour both into the spare container and stir constantly. 10% to 20% of water can also be used to dissolve the quicklime. 80% to 90% of the water is dissolved in copper sulfate. After it is completely dissolved, the copper sulfate solution is slowly poured into the lime milk, and the mixture is stirred while being poured, but it must not be stirred. The lime milk is poured into a copper sulfate solution, otherwise the quality is not good and the control effect is poor.
Bordeaux mixture has good control effect on various fruit and foliar diseases such as ring rot, anthracnose and brown spot, but it has poor efficacy against spotted leaf deciduous disease. When using it, it must be used now. In the middle of June in the year when the rainfall is more (after the bag is finished) to the end of the end of August, it is the epidemic and infancy of various diseases. All varieties are sprayed 1:2. ~ 3: 200 times Bordeaux mixture: mainly 15 to 20 days. Even spraying 3 to 5 times can effectively prevent the occurrence of apple ring disease, anthracnose and brown spot disease. Spraying Bordeaux solution after June has avoided the sensitive period of apple young fruit to copper, so it is safer.
3. Oil emulsion (kerosene emulsion, diesel emulsion)
The oil emulsion was first developed in 1815 to control pests of citrus trees and is one of the best and most basic pesticides in organic agriculture. It is made of 95% motor oil and 5% emulsifier. The oil contains a mixture of various compounds. It is insoluble in water. After adding emulsifier, the oil is completely dispersed in the emulsifier to make brownish emulsifiable concentrate. Can be diluted directly with water. It has a contact effect on pests. The insecticidal mechanism is that the agent is sprayed on the surface of the worm or egg shell. Forming a layer of oil film, sealing the pores, causing it to die. In addition, there is a part of the unsaturated hydrocarbon compound in the oil, which is chemically active. It reacts with oxygen in the presence of light and air to form an acid substance. The worm died of poisoning.
When used, the 95% oil emulsion is diluted 50-80 times and used in the dormant season of the fruit tree. Mainly control scale insects and other pests and diseases. The oil emulsion can also be sprayed at the time of germination (the sulphur sulphur mixture can no longer be used after applying the oil emulsion). It can prevent the winter stalks of the hawthorn spider mites, the overwintering eggs of the apples, and the already hatched oysters and apple mites. Overwintering eggs and newly hatched nymphs of apples. Dilute 100 times with 95% cream and spray after the apple falls. Control the apple claws, the effective control period is more than 40 days. Oil emulsions are harmful to the leaves and flowers. They must be used cautiously during the growing season and reduce the concentration. At present, some commercial oil emulsions are emulsified and can be used in the growing season. The effect of controlling red spiders is very good.
When using an oil emulsion on a fruit tree during the growing season, it is first necessary to carry out a small-scale test on different varieties, and after successful use in the whole garden. Reduce phytotoxicity. Due to the different quality of the oil, the quality of the emulsion is often different, and sometimes there is a susceptibility or stickiness on the operator's skin. In addition, similar to oil emulsions, there are kerosene emulsions and diesel emulsions, the effect and use of which are similar to those of oil emulsions, which can be produced by themselves, as follows:
The raw materials of the diesel emulsion are 1 kg of diesel oil, 0.08 kg of soap, and 0.7 kg of water. The soap is first cut into small pieces and heated and dissolved in water. The diesel oil is heated to 60 Â° C in another container, the diesel oil is poured into soapy water, and the mixture is stirred while being poured, and the mixture is sprayed to another container by a sprayer, and repeated 2 to 3 times until it is milky white. That is, a stock solution containing 60% of oil is prepared.
4, wood vinegar and vinegar
Acid has a good bactericidal effect and is a pure natural green bactericide. The use of wood vinegar and vinegar can effectively prevent and cure various diseases. After soaking with garlic and pepper, it also has the effect of avoiding pests. Wood vinegar is also called vegetable acid. It is a reddish-brown mixture obtained in the process of wood retorting. It contains various organic substances such as acid, alcohol, phenol and ketone, most of which are trace components. As a by-product of natural forest products, wood vinegar is widely used in chemical industry, forestry, agriculture, animal husbandry, food processing industry and medical and health industry. With the advancement of agricultural production methods and agricultural research methods, it pays attention to environmental protection. Under the premise of health, the performance of wood vinegar has gradually been recognized and paid attention to, and its application in agriculture has become more and more extensive. According to production experience and related experimental research, it has been found that wood vinegar has various functions such as promoting plant growth, bacteriostatic, weeding and antisepsis.
In the charcoal burning process, the chimney is used to condense and collect the smoke generated when the wood is carbonized, and the obtained liquid is a crude wood vinegar containing a large amount of impurities such as tar, which cannot be directly applied to agricultural production and needs further purification. The refining method of crude wood vinegar mainly includes static sedimentation method, charcoal (or activated carbon) refining method, medicine refining method, simple distillation method and vacuum distillation method. In agricultural production applications. Generally, the following two methods are used for purification: 1 static sedimentation method: when the crude wood vinegar solution is left in the container for more than 30 days, 3 layers are separated, and the upper 10% light oil and the lower 30% tar are removed. The impurity part, the middle part is a safe and effective wood vinegar component, which can be used in agricultural production. 2 Charcoal (or activated carbon) refining method: adding charcoal powder to the wood vinegar (or wood vinegar which is settled and settled) in proportion to adsorb impurities therein, mixing, stirring and filtering to obtain refined wood vinegar.
After the wood vinegar has just been prepared, it can not be used immediately. It should be placed for half a year to one year. During the placement process, the pepper and garlic can be wrapped in a cloth bag, so that it is a good organic insecticide when used. . 300 to 500 times when the disease is prevented, and 200 to 300 times when the disease occurs. The vinegar is diluted 300 to 500 times when used. Spread in the evening in the evening. The therapeutic effect of vinegar is not as fast as that of chemical agents, and the number of uses should be increased. It is spread 2 to 3 times every 2 to 3 days during treatment.
5, sulfur suspension agent
Sulfur suspension has good bactericidal and acaricidal action, and is an excellent mineral agent. The sulfur suspension agent is safe for crops, has no residual toxicity, good adhesion and is resistant to rain erosion. The sulfur suspending agent, also called colloidal sulfur or sulfur suspending agent, is a suspending agent prepared by processing sulfur powder, and the processing dosage form is 50% grayish white suspending agent. Sulfur is a yellow solid powder with a distinct odor and is insoluble in water. It can burn and produce a gas with a pungent odor. Sulfur is less toxic to humans and animals but has irritating effects on eyes and skin.
The 50% sulfur suspension was diluted 200 times when used. Spraying apple after germination can control hawthorn leafhopper and apple powdery mildew, and the dilution factor will increase with the increase of temperature. Generally, 300 times of liquid is used after apple flowering, and 400 times of liquid is used in apple growth period. When the temperature is lower than 40 Â°C, there is no control effect. When the temperature is higher than 32 Â°C, it should not be sprayed to avoid phytotoxicity. It can also not be mixed with Bordeaux or oil emulsions at the same intervals as the stone sulphur mixture. In the facility, it is easy to fumigate the sulfur powder directly on the sulfur fumigation furnace. Also effective.
6, Chinese herbal medicine
Chinese herbal medicine has an odor, has a strong deworming effect, and can also enhance leaf nutrition and promote thickening of the leaves. There are many formulas for making Chinese herbal medicines. The following describes a formula that can both deworm and enhance nutrition: 2 kilograms of angelica, 1 kilogram of cinnamon, 1 kilogram of licorice, 1 kilogram of garlic, 1 kilogram of ginger, 2 liters of black soybean milk, 150 kilograms of white wine, Black soy milk is boiled with black beans 2 kg + 3 liters of water. When the materials are ready, put them in a large container and cover them. It is usually used for one month in summer and two months in winter. Mix the medicine and water before use, stir for 30 minutes clockwise, and let it sit for 10 to 15 hours and then use it. Generally, it is sprayed at 300~500 times, with an interval of 7 to 10 days.
7. Plant source and microbial source insecticide
These pesticides are mainly insecticides, which are derived from insecticidal effective substances contained in plants. After being extracted, separated and processed into certain dosage forms, they are sold as commercial pesticides. Therefore, they are collectively called plant-derived pesticides and can be used in organic medicine. orchard. Before organic synthetic pesticides became the main pesticide varieties, plant-derived pesticides once shared the historic task of major pesticides with mineral-sourced pesticides. The most important plant-derived pesticides in the past were tobacco, rotenone, and pyrethrum. Its active ingredients are: nicotine (ie nicotine), rotenone, pyrethrin (pyrethrin I and pyrethrin II). Processed separately into nicotine sulfate water, rotenone emulsifiable concentrate, pyrethrin oil, matrine. There are also the use of rotenone and pyrethrum directly pulverized into a powder.
The microbial source agent is an insecticidal effective substance isolated from a metabolite of a microorganism, and is processed to become a commercial preparation having a clear component. The chemical molecular structure and physicochemical properties of their active ingredients must be ascertained, otherwise the stability of the efficacy cannot be guaranteed. And must pass the toxicity test, because many microorganisms are also toxic to humans and animals. The more important varieties are Bt preparations (ie, Bacillus thuringiensis preparations), polyoxomycin, and agricultural anti-120.
8, the preparation of commonly used protective agents
1 wound protectant
250 grams of novolac, 120 grams of rosin, 120 grams of pudding, 3 grams of sulfur powder, 5 grams of copper sulfate
Preparation method and precautions
First, warm the varnish to the boiling point in the iron pan, quickly mix the auxin and rosin into the mixture and then anneal. When cooling to 13~15 Â°C, mix the copper sulphate and sulphur powder into the brown liquid, then bottle the bottle. Sealed for use. Apply to the wound with a pen to form a protective layer.
2 rosin tung oil
1.2 parts of rosin and 1 part of tung oil
Preparation method and precautions
Both of them can be simmered in a wok for 10 minutes at the same time, which can prevent the decay of the xylem and the invasion of germs (such as rot).
3 whitening agent
12 kg of quicklime, 2 kg of salt, 0.2 kg of waste engine oil, 2 kg of stone sulfur mixture, 36 kg of water
Preparation method and precautions
Stirring evenly can make the trunk white, can prevent sunburn and freeze cracking, and can also prevent the pests of Tianniu and other pests from laying eggs. After adding 2 kg of raw soy milk, it can also supplement the tree nutrition.
10 parts of rosin, 0.3 parts of paraffin, 8 parts of castor oil
Preparation method and precautions
It can be used by heating and melting.
Precautions for use of the drug 1
Symptomatic medication :
There are many kinds of harmful diseases such as fruit tree diseases and insect pests, and there are many kinds of chemical pesticides. Only when the pest species are accurately identified, the law of occurrence and development, and the characteristics of the drug are known, can the accurate symptomatic medication be achieved:
For pests, it must be used during the best control period of pests. The disease should also be determined according to its occurrence conditions and diffusion rules, and the timing of the best drug use should be taken before or during the disease.
In order to improve the effect of some fruit growers, the concentration is often increased, which tends to increase the resistance of the bacteria and the sterilization effect is not much increased.
Rotation medication :
A long-term use of pesticides, the bacteria often produce resistance, should use several pesticides in a year, instead of using one or two pesticides in an orchard for many years;
In the production of apples, several pests and diseases often occur in the same period, and the mixed use of pesticides can treat several pests and diseases. However, it should be noted that most of the fungicides are acidic. These drugs should not be mixed with alkaline agents such as stone sulfur and Bordeaux. Both the stone sulphur mixture and the Bordeaux mixture are alkaline, but the mixture of the two immediately produces a dark brown copper sulfide precipitate, and the active ingredient is destroyed, which is prone to phytotoxicity to plants. Oil emulsions should be used during the dormant season and other pesticides should be used one month after use.
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